The ability of X-rays to pass through opaque objects makes it possible to see the inside of all kinds of samples. The image below is an X-ray image of a paper carton containing three chocolate eggs.
X-ray phase contrast is a set of techniques used in research and industry to improve quality in X-ray images. For a quick visualization of the advantages of these techniques, see the image below. (For an introduction to X-ray phase contrast, see the reference section.)
The two images show the same object, a leg joint of a wasp. Drag the red line left/right to compare.
The right image was acquired with a technique called Propagation-based phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PBI). One can clearly see how weakly absorbing features like hairs are much more visible in PBI. The right image also shows another characteristic feature of PBI, edge enhancement. Bright and dark fringes make small features stand out more clearly.
Note: both images were acquired with the same dose, exposure time, and detector resolution. The comparison should in other words be quite fair.
The images are from I. Häggmark, "Phase-Contrast X-ray Imaging of Complex Objects", doctoral thesis, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (2021). link to full-text